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coke

GC: n

CT: The increasing demand of fossil fuels and decreasing light oil proven reserves lead to a future scenario of abundant coke production from the refinement of non-conventional fossil hydrocarbons. This paper highlights the possibility of using coke as an agrichar for preparing fertile soils resembling Amazonian terra preta. It is suggested that this alternative may contribute to both the capture of greenhouse gas by afforestation and the increase of rainfall by the albedo effect. It is proposed that the ideal agrichar must function as a store of nutrients in the form of graphene substituted NPK groups at the micropore molecular structure, providing habitat for plant friendly microorganism inside its macropores. The possibility of a sink effect connecting nutrient storage with microorganisms has also been proposed. A preliminary discussion on the possible coking procedures to improve the resulting agrichar efficacy, three options for large scale desert greening using agrichar as well as recommendations for further research are presented.

S: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032112003899(external link) (last access: 18 February 2015)

N: 1. "residue of fuel," 1690s, northern English dialect, perhaps a variant of Middle English colke "core, charcoal" (c.1400), itself possibly related to -colc, an Old English word for "pit," which perhaps would give it a sense of "what is left in the pit after a fire."
2. A residue of heavier hydrocarbons formed by thermal cracking and distillation and deposited in the reservoir during in situ combustion. This residue catches fire and becomes the fuel for continued combustion.
3. coke, solid residue remaining after certain types of bituminous coals are heated to a high temperature out of contact with air until substantially all of the volatile constituents have been driven off. The residue is chiefly carbon, with minor amounts of hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. Also present in coke is the mineral matter in the original coal, chemically altered and decomposed during the coking process.
4. Cultural Interrelation:
  • Fiction: In The Adventures of Tintin #19, the French original Coke en stock has been translated as Red Sea Sharks in the English version. Sharks refer to "people who unscrupulously exploits or swindles others", so slavers in this context. The word ‘coke’ in English does not lend itself to the play on words used in French and Spanish.
  • Reality: We can mention the "History of Coke" by Eileen Mountjoy. Indiana University of Pennsylvania (IUP).
S: 1. OED - http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=coke&searchmode=none(external link) (last access: 18 February 2015). 2. TERMIUMPLUS. 3. EncBrit - http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/124831/coke(external link) (last access: 18 February 2015). 4. http://www.tintinologist.org/forums/index.php?action=vthread&forum=1&topic=140(external link) (last access: 18 February 2015); PB; http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/shark?searchDictCode=all(external link) (last access: 18 February 2015); FCB; http://www.iup.edu/page.aspx?id=86000(external link) (last access: 31 March 2015).

SYN:
S:

CR: anthracite, bituminous coal, carbon (EN), coal, lignite (EN), mineral coal, natural gas, peat, petroleum, soft brown coal.


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