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neutrino (EN)

GC: n

CT: Aksel L. Hallin, a physics professor at Queen's University and the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, gives this description: A neutrino is a subatomic particle that is very similar to an electron, but has no electrical charge and a very small mass, which might even be zero. Neutrinos are one of the most abundant particles in the universe. Because they have very little interaction with matter, however, they are incredibly difficult to detect. Nuclear forces treat electrons and neutrinos identically; neither participate in the strong nuclear force, but both participate equally in the weak nuclear force. Particles with this property are termed leptons. In addition to the electron (and it's anti-particle, the positron), the charged leptons include the muon (with a mass 200 times greater than that of the electron), the tau (with mass 3,500 times greater than that of the electron) and their anti-particles.

S: ScientificAmerican - https://bit.ly/2OvTCP3(external link) (last access: 12 December 2018).

N: 1. 1934, from Italian neutrino, coined 1933 by Italian physicist Enrico Fermi from neutro "neuter" (late 14th century, of grammatical gender, "neither masculine nor feminine," from Latin neuter "of the neuter gender," literally "neither one nor the other," from ne- "not, no" (from PIE root *ne- "not") + uter "either (of two)". Probably a loan-translation of Greek oudeteros "neither, neuter." In 16th century, it had the sense of "taking neither side, neutral.") + -ino, diminutive suffix.
2. A particle with no charge and essentially zero rest mass, and spin ½.
3. Two kinds of neutrino are known, one associated with the emission of electrons and the other with that of (mu)-mesons.
4. Neutrinos belong to the family of particles called leptons, which are not subject to the strong force. Rather, neutrinos are subject to the weak force that underlies certain processes of radioactive decay.
5. There are three types of neutrino, each associated with a charged lepton.
  • the electron (electron-neutrino).
  • the muon (muon-neutrino).
  • the tau (tau-neutrino).
Each type of neutrino also has an antimatter component, called an antineutrino.
6. "Neutrino" has been standardized by ISO.

S: 1. OED - https://bit.ly/2BjWmtH(external link) ; https://bit.ly/2EjaiqM(external link) (last access: 12 December 2018). 2 & 3. TERMIUM PLUS – https://bit.ly/2rCrdgu(external link) (last access: 12 December 2018). 4 & 5. EncBrit – https://bit.ly/2Gq7SJs(external link) (last access: 12 December 2018). 6. TERMIUM PLUS – https://bit.ly/2rCrdgu(external link) (last access: 12 December 2018).

SYN:
S:

CR: atom, electron (EN), gamma radiation, ion (EN), lepton (EN), muon (EN), nuclear energy, particle, proton (EN), quark (EN), synchrotron, X-rays.


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