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nitrogen dioxide

GC: n

CT: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the nitrogen oxides (NOx), a group of air pollutants produced from combustion processes. In urban outdoor air, the presence of NO2 is mainly due to traffic. Nitric oxide (NO), which is emitted by motor vehicles or other combustion processes, combines with oxygen in the atmosphere, producing NO2. Indoor NO2 is produced mainly by unvented heaters and gas stoves.

S: GF - http://www.greenfacts.org/en/nitrogen-dioxide-no2/level-2/01-presentation.htm#0(external link) (last access: 9 December 2016)

N: 1. From French nitrogène, coined 1790 by French chemist Jean Antoine Chaptal (1756-1832). From the combination form of Greek nitron (sodium carbonate) plus French gène (producing), from Greek -gen (giving birth to).
The term dioxide for an oxide containing two atoms of oxygen came into use in the middle of the 19th century.
2. Gaseous air pollutant produced as a result of road traffic and other fossil fuel combustion processes. Its presence in the air contributes to the formation and modification of other air pollutants, such as ozone and particulate matter, and to acid rain.
3. Studies on human populations indicate that long-term exposure to NO2 levels currently observed in Europe may decrease lung function and increase the risk of respiratory symptoms such as acute bronchitis and cough and phlegm, particularly in children.
Individual exposure to NO2 depends mainly on local outdoor concentrations. However, it can also be affected by indoor pollution sources such as tobacco smoking and unvented cooking or heating appliances using gas.
4. Steps to reduce exposure:
  • Keep gas appliances properly adjusted.
  • Consider purchasing a vented space heater when replacing an un-vented one.
  • Use proper fuel in kerosene space heaters.
  • Install and use an exhaust fan vented to outdoors over gas stoves.
  • Open flues when fireplaces are in use.
  • Choose properly sized wood stoves that are certified to meet EPA emission standards. Make certain that doors on all wood stoves fit tightly.
  • Have a trained professional inspect, clean and tune-up central heating system (furnaces, flues and chimneys) annually. Repair any leaks promptly.
  • Do not idle the car inside garage.
5. No standards have been agreed upon for nitrogen oxides in indoor air. ASHRAE and the US. EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standards list 0.053 ppm as the average 24-hour limit for NO2 in outdoor air.

S: 1. OED - http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=nitrogen(external link) (last access: 9 December 2016). 2 and 3. GF -http://www.greenfacts.org/en/nitrogen-dioxide-no2/ (last access: 9 December 2016). 4 and 5. EPA - https://www.epa.gov/indoor-air-quality-iaq/nitrogen-dioxides-impact-indoor-air-quality(external link) (last access: 9 December 2016).

SYN: dinitrogen tetroxide, nitrogen peroxide. (context)

S: CDC - https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0454.html(external link) (last access: 9 December 2016)

CR: acid rain, air pollution, atom, contaminant (EN), nitrogen oxide, nitrous oxide, pollution (EN), tropospheric ozone.



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