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particle

GC: n

CT: At higher temperatures, particles have more energy. Some of this energy can be transmitted to other particles that are at a lower temperature. For example, in the gas state, when a fast moving particle collides with a slower moving particle, it transfers some of its energy to the slower moving particle, increasing the speed of that particle.
With billions of moving particles colliding into each other, an area of high energy will slowly transfer across the material until thermal equilibrium is reached (the temperature is the same across the material).

S: http://sciencelearn.org.nz/Contexts/Fire/Science-Ideas-and-Concepts/Heat-energy(external link) (last access: 20 November 2015)

N: 1. The word particule comes from Latin particula "little bit or part, grain, jot," diminutive of pars (genitive partis) "part". The word "part" means "division, portion of a whole".
2. In the field of Atomic Physics: Any elementary particle including the photon. By extension, any nucleus, ion, etc.
3. Particle accelerator: any device that produces a beam of fast-moving, electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles.They were invented in the 1930s to provide energetic particles to investigate the structure of the atomic nucleus. Since then, they have been used to investigate many aspects of particle physics. Their job is to speed up and increase the energy of a beam of particles by generating electric fields that accelerate the particles, and magnetic fields that steer and focus them.
4. Elementary particles/fundamental particles: any of various self-contained units of matter or energy that are the fundamental constituents of all matter. In 1963, a theory was proposed that a major group of these particles, called hadrons, could be thought of as made from a few, more fundamental particles, called quarks. Protons and neutrons are members of the hadron group.

S: 1. OED - http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=particle&searchmode=none(external link) (last access: 11 November 2015); http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=part&allowed_in_frame=0(external link) (last access: 19 November 2015). 2. TERMIUM PLUS - http://goo.gl/4YeoSI(external link) (last access: 17 November 2015). 3. EncBrit - http://global.britannica.com/technology/particle-accelerator(external link) (last access: 20 November 2015); CERN - http://home.cern/about/how-accelerator-works(external link) (last access: 19 November 2015). 4. UNI-OREGON - http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/ast123/lectures/lec07.html(external link) (last access: 19 November 2015); FNAL.GOV - http://ed.fnal.gov/tchrbkground/theory.html(external link) (last access: 20 November 2015); EncBrit - http://global.britannica.com/science/subatomic-particle(external link) (last access: 20 November 2015).

SYN:
S:

CR: electron (EN), Higgs boson, lepton (EN), linear accelerator, molecule, muon (EN), neutrino (EN), quark (EN), synchrotron, X-rays.



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