soil pollution

GC: n

CT: Soil pollution can lead to water pollution if toxic chemicals leach into groundwater, or if contaminated runoff reaches streams, lakes, or oceans. Soil also naturally contributes to air pollution by releasing volatile compounds into the atmosphere. Nitrogen escapes through ammonia volatilization and denitrification. The decomposition of organic materials in soil can release sulfur dioxide and other sulfur compounds, causing acid rain. Heavy metals and other potentially toxic elements are the most serious soil pollutants in sewage. Sewage sludge contains heavy metals and, if applied repeatedly or in large amounts, the treated soil may accumulate heavy metals and consequently become unable to even support plant life.
In addition, chemicals that are not water soluble contaminate plants that grow on polluted soils, and they also tend to accumulate increasingly toward the top of the food chain.

S: RG - https://bit.ly/2V1eqll(external link) (last access: 21 December 2018).

N: 1. - soil (n): c. 1300, originally "land, area, place," from Anglo-French soil "piece of ground, place" (13c.), from a merger or confusion of Old French sol "bottom, ground, soil" (12c., from Latin solum "soil, ground;"), Old French soeul, sueil "threshold, area, place" (from Latin solium "seat," from PIE *sodio- "seat," from PIE root *sed- "to sit"), and Old French soil, soille "a miry place," from soillier.
- pollution (n): mid-14c., "discharge of semen other than during sex," later, "desecration, defilement" (late 14c.), from Late Latin pollutionem (nominative pollutio) "defilement," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin polluere "to soil, defile, contaminate," from por- "before" + -luere "smear," from PIE root *leu- "dirt; make dirty". Sense of "contamination of the environment" first recorded c. 1860, but not common until c. 1955.
2. Presence in the soil of a chemical or substance out of place and/or present at a higher than normal concentration that has adverse effects on any non-targeted organism.
3. The Status of the World's Soil Resources Report (SWSR) identified soil pollution as one of the main soil threats affecting global soils and the ecosystems services provided by them.
4. In Europe, there may be as many as 2.5 million potentially contaminated sites which need to be investigated. Of these, approximately 14 % (340 000 sites) are expected to be contaminated and likely to require remediation.
5. The biggest risks for soil contamination are in urban areas and former industrial sites.
6. Soil pollution often cannot be directly assessed or visually perceived, making it a hidden danger.
7. The main causes of soil pollution are industrial activities (mining, manufacturing, industrial waste, improper disposal), agriculture activities (herbicides, pesticides), human waste, deforestation and acid rain.
8. Based on scientific evidence, soil pollution can severely degrade the major ecosystem services provided by soil. Soil pollution reduces food security by both reducing crop yields due to toxic levels of contaminants and by causing crops produced from polluted soils to be unsafe for consumption by animals and humans. Many contaminants (including major nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus) are transported from the soil to surface waters and ground water, causing great environmental harm through eutrophication and direct human health issues due to polluted drinking water. Pollutants also directly harm soil microorganisms and larger soil-dwelling organisms and hence affect soil biodiversity and the services provided by the affected organisms. Also, the results of scientific research demonstrate that soil pollution directly affects human health. Risks to human health arise from contamination from elements such as arsenic, lead, and cadmium, organic chemicals such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics. The health risks associated with the widespread soil contamination by radionuclides from the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 are an enduring memory for many people.
9. Concerns about soil pollution are growing in every region. Recently, the United Nations Environmental Assembly (UNEA-3) adopted a resolution calling for accelerated actions and collaboration to address and manage soil pollution. This consensus, achieved by more than 170 countries, is a clear sign of the global relevance of soil pollution and of the willingness of these countries to develop concrete solutions to address the causes and impacts of this major threat.
10. Cultural Interrelation: We can also mention the movie WALL·E (2008) created by Andrew Stanton.

S: 1. OED - https://bit.ly/2AcXYFA(external link) (last access: 21 December 2018). 2 & 3. FAO - https://bit.ly/2jkMJCm(external link) (last access: 21 December 2018). 4. EEA - https://bit.ly/2R3Ooif(external link) (last access: 21 December 2018). 5. SOILS - https://bit.ly/2rX37gN(external link) (last access: 21 December 2018). 6. FAO - https://bit.ly/2jkMJCm(external link) (last access: 21 December 2018). 7. CI - https://bit.ly/2LsRnez(external link) (last access: 21 December 2018). 8, 9. FAO - https://bit.ly/2jkMJCm(external link) (last access: 21 December 2018). 10. IMDb - https://imdb.to/2NJgBFx(external link) (last access: 21 December 2018).

SYN: contamination of soils, land pollution, soil contamination. (depending on context)

S: TERMIUM PLUS - https://bit.ly/2EHbJQH(external link) (last access: 21 December 2018).

CR: acid rain, air pollution, climate change, contaminant (EN), ecology, environment, pollution (EN), water pollution.


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