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proton (EN)

GC: n

CT: In the Energy Doubler/Saver, protons comprising an energy of 1,000 giga-electron volts would be sent into a block of uranium. Each proton would generate 60,000 neutrons, which would be absorbed by the uranium nuclei to produce plutonium.
When burned in a nuclear reactor, plutonium produces 0.2 GeV of fission energy. So multiply that by 60,000 extra neutrons, and that's 12,000 GeV. Ergo, a single proton could lead to the release of 12,000 GeV of energy.
Now, this is not very much energy -you would need about 600,000 TeV (tera-electron volts) to power a 10-watt light bulb for one second, and there are 1,000 GeV in every TeV. So you would need lots and lots of protons to make enough plutonium to power a reactor.

S: Popsci - https://bit.ly/2rPvltr(external link) (last access: 20.12.2018)

N: 1. Coined by English physicist Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) from noun use of Greek proton, neuter of protos "first". The word was used earlier in embryology (1893) as a translation of German anlage ("fundamental thing") based on Aristotle's phrase he prote ousia to proton.
2. An elementary particle that is identical with the nucleus of the hydrogen atom, that along with the neutron is a constituent of all other atomic nuclei, that carries a positive charge numerically equal to the charge of an electron, and that has a mass of 1.673 × 10−27 kilogram.
3. In the context of physics, protons are typically discussed specifically as subatomic particles. Chemists, however, use the terms "proton" and "hydrogen ion" somewhat interchangeably. Hydrogen atoms have one proton and one electron, and most have zero neutrons. Consequently, when a hydrogen atom loses its electron and becomes an ion, all that remains is a single proton. This fact is an important aspect of chemistry because the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution determines the solution's degree of acidity. In other words, what makes a substance acidic is its ability to donate protons to other substances during chemical reactions.
4. proton: term standardized by ISO in 1997.
5. Protons are constituents of all nuclei. The atomic number of an atom is equal to the number of protons in its nucleus.

S: 1. OED - https://bit.ly/2SfJSup(external link) (last access: 19 December 2018). MW - https://bit.ly/2rJ6tUi(external link) (last access: 19 December 2018). 3. Sciencing - https://bit.ly/2GxS9rZ(external link) (last access: 19 December 2018). 4. TERMIUM PLUS - https://bit.ly/2Cokpt6(external link) (last access: 19 December 2018). 5. GDT - https://bit.ly/2A5TxN1(external link) (last access: 19 December 2018).

SYN:
S:

CR: atom, electron (EN), ion (EN), linear accelerator, molecule, muon (EN), neutrino (EN), nuclear energy, synchrotron.





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