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synchrotron

GC: n

CT: A synchrotron is an extremely powerful source of X-rays. The X-rays are produced by high energy electrons as they circulate around the synchrotron.
The entire world of synchrotron science depends on one physical phenomenon: When a moving electron changes direction, it emits energy. When the electron is moving fast enough, the emitted energy is at X-ray wavelength.

S: ESRF - https://bit.ly/2rBHpyA(external link) (last access: 14 December 2018)

N: 1. From synchro (indicating ‘synchronization’) and electron (tiny particle of matter that is smaller than an atom and has a negative electrical charge).
2. Cyclic particle accelerator in which a charged particle – generally, a subatomic particle, such as an electron or a proton, or a heavy-ion particle, such as a gold ion – is accelerated to very high energies in the presence of an alternating electric field while confined to a constant circular orbit by a magnetic field.
3. In order to maintain a constant trajectory within the cyclic accelerator:
  • the magnetic field must gradually increase in strength as the particle’s momentum increases;
  • the frequency of the accelerating electric field must be maintained or adjusted as necessary in order to be synchronous with the orbital frequency of the ch
The synchrotron is useful when the particle is accelerated to a speed approaching the speed of light.
4. The synchrotron applies a field that changes in time. As the beam gains energy, the field adjusts accordingly to hold the beam in the center of the tube that contains the beam. This allows for greater degrees of control over the beam, and the device can be built to provide more increases in energy throughout a cycle.
5. Term standardized by ISO.
6. Cultural Interrelation: The first-time use of synchrotron radiation-based X-ray fluorescence mapping was applied to visualize a woman’s head hidden under the work ‘Patch of Grass’ by Van Gogh.

S: 1. Collins - https://bit.ly/2BjqhSN(external link) (last access: 14 December 2018). 2 & 3. EncBrit - https://bit.ly/2BfZruA(external link) (last access: 14 December 2018). 4. ThoughtCo - https://bit.ly/2ElRIyr(external link) (last access: 14 December 2018). 5. TERMIUM PLUS - https://bit.ly/2rEtVSy(external link) (last access: 15 December 2018). 6. ACSP - https://bit.ly/2QPXbE1(external link) (last access: 14 December 2018).

SYN:
S:

CR: atom, electricity, electromagnetic wave, electron (EN), ion (EN), lepton (EN), linear accelerator, muon (EN), neutrino (EN), nuclear energy, particle, photonics, proton (EN), quark (EN), radioactivity, X-rays.



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