CT: Holography, means of creating a unique photographic image without the use of a lens. The photographic recording of the image is called a hologram, which appears to be an unrecognizable pattern of stripes and whorls but which—when illuminated by coherent light, as by a laser beam—organizes the light into a three-dimensional representation of the original object.
S: EncBrit – https://bit.ly/2UmV61l (last access: 6 December 2018)
N: 1949, coined by Hungarian-born British scientist Dennis Gabor (Gábor Dénes), 1971 Nobel prize winner in physics for his work in holography; from Greek holos “whole” (here in sense of “three-dimensional;” from PIE root *sol- “whole, well-kept”) + -gram.
2. Dennis Gabor, a Hungarian-born scientist, invented holography in 1948, for which he received the Nobel Prize for Physics more than 20 years later (1971).
3. Gabor considered the possibility of improving the resolving power of the electron microscope, first by utilizing the electron beam to make a hologram of the object and then by examining this hologram with a beam of coherent light.
4. Computer Generated Hologram metrology is a promising solution to several of the drawbacks associated with traditional metrology techniques for aspheric lenses.
5. Like a photograph, a hologram is a permanent record of the light reflected off an object. But a hologram also looks real and three-dimensional and moves as you look around it, just like a real object. That happens because of the unique way in which holograms are made.
6. In a technique called holographic interferometry, scientists can make a hologram of something like an engine part and store it as a “three-dimensional photograph” for later reference.
7. Holograms can also be embossed ‘stamped into a foil’ with applications including in security identification, such as on passports, credit cards, tickets and packaging, as they are difficult to copy without the master hologram.
8. The two basic geometries for holograms are – transmission – where light is shone through the hologram, and – reflection – in which the hologram reflects light. The recording of transmission and reflection holograms were developed from two different fields of enquiry and have distinct optical aesthetics.
9. Cultural Interrelation: We can mention the movies The Ilusionist (2006) directed by Neil Burguer and The Prestige (2006) directed by Christopher Nolan.
S: 1. OED – https://bit.ly/2Syzrlf (last access: 6.12.2018). 2. EncBrit – https://bit.ly/2UmV61l (last access: 6 December 2018). 3. EncBrit – https://bit.ly/2UmV61l (last access: 6 December 2018). 4. EO – https://bit.ly/2QK4ayF (last access: 6 December 2018). 5. EXTHSTUFF – https://bit.ly/2SzNG9v (last access: 6 December 2018). 6. EXTHSTUFF – https://bit.ly/2SzNG9v (last access: 6 December 2018). 7. HOLOCENTER – https://bit.ly/2bJ00ky (last access: 6 December 2018). 8. HOLOCENTER – https://bit.ly/2bJ00ky (last access: 6 December 2018). 9. RT – https://bit.ly/2rr2sni; https://bit.ly/2L3m6ic (last access: 8 December 2018).