CT: Direct solar radiations as well as indirect solar radiation (wind, rain, melting snow) are the most significant influencing factors for this kind of ground energy system due to the low installation depths. In winter time when the solar application of energy is reduced the system needs the highest output, in summer time vice versa. To run the horizontal collector system with a good performance the stored energy in the soil during summer time will be then used in winter. This will be supported by the physically fact of the phase change of water within the ground. Humidity in the soil via natural groundwater, rain or melting snow is very important. In order to enable a horizontal collector to utilize this storage capacity it is necessary that the top edge of the collector (which can have any shape) is positioned below the natural frost line. Avoid overbuilding and sealing above the collector area to ensure a smooth moistening application to the soil.
S: UPONOR – https://www.uponor.com/single-family-home/energy-and-ground/horizontal-ground-collectors.aspx (last access: 9 January 2015).
N: 1. horizontal (adj.): 550s, “relating to or near the horizon,” from French horizontal, from Latin horizontem. Meaning “flat” (i.e., “parallel to the horizon”) is from 1630s.
collector (n): late 14c., “gatherer of taxes, etc.,” from Anglo-French collectour “collector” (of money or taxes; Old French collector, Modern French collecteur), from Late Latin collector, agent noun from colligere.
2. Another method of increasing well capability is the infiltration gallery. This system was employed in some of the ancient water works of the Near East and Mediterranean lands,but is not used in the United States. It consists of a pipe, tunnel, or a gravel-filled trench sunk into the aquifer. If constructed from the surface, infiltration galleries must be of limited depth; if tunneled from the bottom of a shaft, they are expensive. However, in modern times an ingenious method has been developed for constructing the equivalent of infiltration galleries, or horizontal wells, relatively inexpensively. This device is known as the horizontal collector.
3. The horizontal collector is the variant with the lowest costs involved compared to all other ground energy systems.
S: 1. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=horizontal&searchmode=none (last access: 9 January 2015). 2. TAWD – http://goo.gl/GUDC2L (last access: 9 January 2015). 3. UPONOR – https://www.uponor.com/single-family-home/energy-and-ground/horizontal-ground-collectors.aspx (last access: 9 January 2015).