GC: n CT: Computer science is a discipline that spans theory and practice. It requires thinking both in abstract terms and in concrete terms. The practical side of computing can be seen everywhere. Nowadays, practically everyone is a computer user, and many people are even computer programmers. Getting computers to
GC: n CT: A computer virus, much like a flu virus, is designed to spread from host to host and has the ability to replicate itself. Similarly, in the same way that viruses cannot reproduce without a host cell, computer viruses cannot reproduce and spread without programming such as a
GC: n CT: A computer worm is a self-replicating computer program that penetrates an operating system with the intent of spreading malicious code. Worms utilize networks to send copies of the original code to other computers, causing harm by consuming bandwidth or possibly deleting files or sending documents via email.
GC: n CT: At this stage it is important to make a distinction between two terms that are closely related and that tend to confuse non-specialists: machine translation (MT) and computer-assisted translation (CAT). These two technologies are the consequence of different approaches. They do not produce the same results, and
GC: n CT: In any data warehouse implementation there are many different considerations which should in place before the final physical setting up. This is to avoid in problems related to quality of data and consistencies in data processes. A conceptual schema is an abstract definition of the whole project.
GC: n CT: condensation, in physics, change of a substance from the gaseous (vapor) to the liquid state (see states of matter). Condensation is the reverse of vaporization, or change from liquid to gas. It can be brought about by cooling, as in distillation, or by an increase in pressure
GC: n CT: Condensing boilers use heat from exhaust gases that would normally be released into the atmosphere through the flue. To use this latent heat, the water vapour from the exhaust gas is turned into liquid condensate. S: WORCESTER – http://www.worcester-bosch.co.uk/homeowner/boilers/what-is-a-condensing-boiler (last access: 16 December 2014) N: 1. condensing
GC: n CT: The Conference of the Parties is the governing body of the Convention, and advances implementation of the Convention through the decisions it takes at its periodic meetings. To date the Conference of the Parties has held 12 ordinary meetings, and one extraordinary meeting (the latter, to adopt
GC: n CT: A barrier which surrounds the main parts of a facility containing radioactive materials and which is designed to prevent or mitigate the uncontrolled release of radioactive material to the environment in operational states or design basis accidents. Confinement is similar in meaning to containment, but is typically
GC: n CT: Our ocean and coastal areas provide us with a lot – from food, places to boat and swim, and wildlife to enjoy…the list goes on. So when these areas become polluted and unhealthy, it isn’t just bad for the environment, it’s also bad for us. At NOS,
GC: n CT: Liquids and gases are fluids. The particles in these fluids can move from place to place. Convection occurs when particles with a lot of heat energy in a liquid or gas move and take the place of particles with less heat energy. Heat energy is transferred from
GC: n CT: A conversational agent is a software program which interprets and responds to statements made by users in ordinary natural language. It integrates computational linguistics techniques with communication over the internet. S: https://www.chatbots.org/conversational_agent/ (last access: 30 December 2014) N: 1. conversational (adj): 1779, from conversation (mid-14c., “living together,
GC: n CT: Fuels made from oil mixtures containing large hydrocarbon molecules are not efficient. They do not flow easily and are difficult to ignite. Crude oil often contains too many large hydrocarbon molecules and not enough small hydrocarbon molecules to meet demand – this is where cracking comes in.
GC: n CT: Cryogenics is the branch of physics that deals with the production and effects of very low temperatures. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest cryogenic system in the world and one of the coldest places on Earth. All of the magnets on the LHC are electromagnets
GC: n CT: Cryopreservation is based on the ability of certain small molecules to enter cells and prevent dehydration and formation of intracellular ice crystals, which can cause cell death and destruction of cell organelles during the freezing process. Two common cryoprotective agents are dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol. Glycerol
GC: n CT: Crystallization is based on the principles of solubility: compounds (solutes) tend to be more soluble in hot liquids (solvents) than they are in cold liquids. If a saturated hot solution is allowed to cool, the solute is no longer soluble in the solvent and forms crystals of
GC: n CT: Every wind turbine design has a cut-in wind speed, a rated wind speed, and a cut-out wind speed. At the cut-in wind speed, the blades start to turn and a trickle of electricity starts to be produced. Around cut-in, the generator may be used as a motor
GC: n CT: The foundation preparation for the spillway structure consisted of stripping the overburden and exposing the bedrock. For the embankment sections, the soft, loose overburden was stripped to expose competent sands or gravels and a cutoff trench was excavated down to the rock surface. The cutoff trench is
GC: n CT: Cybercrime is defined as a crime in which a computer is the object of the crime (hacking, phishing, spamming) or is used as a tool to commit an offense (child pornography, hate crimes). Cybercriminals may use computer technology to access personal information, business trade secrets or use
GC: n CT: Traditionally, the quality of universities and their research are compared using measures such as numbers of published papers, especially those in peer-reviewed journals with high impact factors, and numbers of times that those papers are cited. But such measures do not give the whole picture. In the
GC: n CT: Cybernetics was christened publically with the publication of Cybernetics, by Norbert Wiener (1948). Two short extracts follow, both written by Professor F.H. George. The first is a summary (circa 1980) defining Cybernetics, the second (1965) outlines the major classes of Cybernetic problems. Cybernetics could be thought of
GC: n CT: S: N: 1. From cyber (as an element in word formation, ultimately from cybernetics (q.v.); it enjoyed explosive use with the rise of the Internet early 1990s) and security (mid-15c., “condition of being secure,” from Latin securitas, from securus “free from care”; replacing sikerte (early 15c.), from