computer science

GC: n

CT: Computer science is a discipline that spans theory and practice. It requires thinking both in abstract terms and in concrete terms. The practical side of computing can be seen everywhere. Nowadays, practically everyone is a computer user, and many people are even computer programmers. Getting computers to do what you want them to do requires intensive hands-on experience. But computer science can be seen on a higher level, as a science of problem solving. Computer scientists must be adept at modeling and analyzing problems. They must also be able to design solutions and verify that they are correct. Problem solving requires precision, creativity, and careful reasoning.
Computer science also has strong connections to other disciplines. Many problems in science, engineering, health care, business, and other areas can be solved effectively with computers, but finding a solution requires both computer science expertise and knowledge of the particular application domain. Thus, computer scientists often become proficient in other subjects.
Finally, computer science has a wide range of specialties. These include computer architecture, software systems, graphics, artifical intelligence, computational science, and software engineering. Drawing from a common core of computer science knowledge, each specialty area focuses on particular challenges.

S: (last access: 22 December 2014)

N: 1. computer (n): 1640s, “one who calculates,” agent noun from compute (v.). Meaning “calculating machine” (of any type) is from 1897; in modern use, “programmable digital electronic computer” (1945 under this name; theoretical from 1937, as Turing machine). ENIAC (1946) usually is considered the first. Computer literacy is recorded from 1970; an attempt to establish computerate (adjective, on model of literate) in this sense in the early 1980s didn’t catch on. Computerese “the jargon of programmers” is from 1960, as are computerize and computerization.
science (n): mid-14c., “what is known, knowledge (of something) acquired by study; information;” also “assurance of knowledge, certitude, certainty,” from Old French science “knowledge, learning, application; corpus of human knowledge” (12c.), from Latin scientia “knowledge, a knowing; expertness,” from sciens (genitive scientis) “intelligent, skilled,” present participle of scire “to know,” probably originally “to separate one thing from another, to distinguish,” related to scindere “to cut, divide,” from PIE root skei- “to cut, to split” (cognates: Greek skhizein “to split, rend, cleave,” Gothic skaidan, Old English sceadan “to divide, separate;”).
2. Computer science is a discipline that involves the understanding and design of computers and computational processes. In its most general form it is concerned with the understanding of information transfer and transformation. Particular interest is placed on making processes efficient and endowing them with some form of intelligence. The discipline ranges from theoretical studies of algorithms to practical problems of implementation in terms of computational hardware and software.
3. The branch of science and technology that is concerned with information processing by means of computers.
4. computer science: term and definition standardized by CSA International and ISO/IEC.

S: 1. OED –; (last access: 22 December 2014). 2. (last access: 22 December 2014). 3 & 4. TERMIUM PLUS – (last access: 22 December 2014).

SYN: informatics, computing science.

S: TERMIUM PLUS – (last access: 22 December 2014); GDT – (last access: 22 December 2014).

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